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Plantagenet King: Edward III

king edward iii
King Edward III of England

1327  Edward III accedes to the English throne on the 25th January, after his father: Edward II renounced his throne, in favour of his son, Edward III.  He was crowned on the 29th January and ruled England with his mother: Isabella of France and her lover, Roger Mortimer as his Regents.

1328  King Edward III married Philippa of Hainault on the 24th January in York.

They were blessed with nine children, who reached adulthood:

Edward (The Black Prince), Isabella, Joan, Lional (Duke of Clarence), Mary, John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster), Margaret, Edmund (Duke of York) and Thomas (Duke of Gloucester).

1329  Edward III formerly recognizes Scotland as an independent nation, and part of England.

Edward bitterly resented giving independence to Scotland, and he saw his chance to win Scotland back, when Robert Bruce died.

David, the new King of the Scots, was Edward’s brother – in law.

1330  Edward takes over power, as ruler of his kingdom, after three years of governing by his regents; Isabella of France and her lover Roger Mortimer.

Roger Mortimer is executed, as for his mother, he allows her to live out the rest of her life at Castle Rising.  She was not allowed to leave the grounds.  She haunts this castle, her final resting place, where she died on the 22nd August 1358, and her screams and manic laughter can still be heard to this day.

1332  Exiled barons, who supported Robert Bruce, invaded Scotland, headed by Edward Baliol, who became King of Scotland, upon their victory, only to be driven out a few months later.

Parliament, is divided into two houses; the Lords and Commons, and English becomes the common language, replacing the Norman French language.

1333  Edward III defeated the Scots at Halidon Hill.

1337  The French King; Philip VI seizes Edward’s Duchy of Aquitaine.  Edward’s response was to declare himself as the rightful heir to the French throne, as grandson of Philip IV, and his mother; Isabella… The result was the “100 Years War,” with France.

1340  On the 24th June, an English fleet of ships, destroyed the French navy at Sluys, and the ensuing war was fought on French soil.

1342  The rebuilding of Windsor Castle commenced.

Edward went to Brittany and fought against the French, proving himself a military warrior in the process.

1344  In the January, King Edward III held a Round Table Tournament at Windsor, known as the “Order of the Garter” originally consisting of 300 knights dressed in blue robes, with St.George as their patron.

1346  Edward III accompanied by his son Edward (The Black Prince), defeated the French King; Philip VI at the “Battle of Crecy” on the 26th August.

King David II of Scotland invades England, and was defeated at Neville’s Cross, where he was taken prisoner.

1347  Edward attacks Calais, which is captured by his forces… With a high success rate, he was forced to make a truce, as money ran out.

1348  On the 23rd April at the feast of St.George, he announced that the “Order of the Garter”£ would be reserved for 24 knights, who showed their loyalty to their King, and chivalry on the battlefield.  At the head would be King Edward III and Edward, the Black Prince, making a total of 26 knights.

1348/1349  Black Death arrives in England, and takes the livces of one-third of its population.

1356  Edward the Black Prince defeats the French at Poiters, and takes King John II of France prisoner.

1357  King David II of Scotland is released from captivity.

1360  King John II of France, is released from captivity, after promising to pay a ransom, leaving Louis of Anjou in English held Calais as hostage.

Edward now controlled a quarter of France.  His success rate, consolidated the support of his nobles, and eased criticism of the taxes, which paid for the war with France.

1364  Louis escapes from Calais, forcing John to return to England, for he could not pay the ransom.  He lived out the remainder of his life in England.

1369  The French take back the lands of Aquitaine, and war with England and France, kicks off again.

1370  Edward the Black Prince, massacres 3,000 people at Limoges.

1373  John of Gaunt leads an invasion into France, on the borders of Burgundy.

John of Gaunt returns home, to find both Edward III his father, and Edward the Black Prince are both seriously ill.

1375  The French King; Charles V, reversed England’s conquest in the “Treaty of Bruges” reducing Edward’s gains to Calais and coastal areas of Bordeaux, which received much criticism in England.

1376  Parliament elected the first speaker who would represent the Commons, and an attack on high taxes and critism against the King’s advisers.  Furthermore, he refused to grant their King anymore money to continue his war with France.

Edward the Black Prince dies, and with it, Edward III lost his mind over the latter years of his life.  He was heart-broken.

1377  King Edward III, died on the 21st June aged 64 at Sheen Palace, Surrey and was buried at Westminster Abbey.

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Plantagenet King: Edward II

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King Edward II of England

1307  On the 8th July, Edward the son of King Edward I and Eleanor of Castile succeeded his father as King Edward II of England.

1308  On the 25th January in Boulogne, France, King Edward II of England married Isabella Capet, the daughter of King Phillip IV of France, and of Jeanne of Navarre.

On the 25th February Edward II and Isabella Capet were crowned King and Queen of England, at Westminster Abbey.

Edward was forced to exile his friend and adviser, one Piers Gaveston, with whom he confided in, for misgovernment.

1309  Edward recalled his exiled friend, Piers Gaveston from France, and granted him the Earldom of Cornwall, much to the annoyance of England’s baron’s.

1310  Parliament creates the “Lords Ordainers” committee, with the express task of controlling the King and his administration.  Thomas, the Earl of Lancaster, is appointed to take control.

1312  Edward and Isabella’s first child was named Edward.

Piers Gaveston, Edwards homosexual lover, was captured by the Earl of Pembroke, and believing he was bad distraction for the King and England; was executed.

1314  Edward invades Scotland only to be defeated in the “Battle of Bannockburn” by Robert Bruce.

Scotland’s Independence was assured.

1315  Thomas, the Earl of Lancaster, had made himself the real ruler of England, with Edward as the face of England, and the baron’s had the power.

1320  Welsh border baron’s, the LeDespenser’s gained the King’s favour, and supported Edward, offering advice.

The Scots gained their independence, by signing the “Declaration of Arbroath.”

1322  Edward’s support of the Despenser’s ambitions for Wales, saw them banished from England by a group of baron’s.

Thomas, the Earl of Lancaster is defeated in battle against Edward at the “Battle of Boroughbridge” in Yorkshire.

Edward had the Earl of Lancaster executed, and recalled the Despenser’s, who assisted in his ruling of England.

1325  Isabella and Edward’s dislike for each other, had scaled to new heights.

Isabella went to Paris on a mission to see her brother; Charles IV of France, and craftily succeeded in getting her son, Prince Edward, sent to join her in France.  The stage was set for a successful coup, in which Edward II would be deposed and be replaced by his own son, Prince Edward.

1326  Edward’s wife, Isabella of France led a successful invasion against her husband, and had him imprisoned in Berkeley Castle.  She deposes Edward, seizing power.

The Despenser’s are put to death.

1327  Edward II was forced to renounce his throne in favour of his son; Prince Edward, and Parliament duly deposed Edward II.

Edward III ruled England with his mother; Isabella of France and her lover Roger Mortimer as Regents.

Edward II is murdered in Berkeley Castle, upon the express orders of his wife on the 21st September 1327, aged 43 and was buried at Gloucester.

Additional Info:

Edward II, was the second King of England to be dethroned… The first was Ethelred in 1013.

Plantagenet King: Edward I (Longshanks)

king edward i
King Edward I of England

1272  In August of 1270, Edward joined King Louis IX of France on the Crusade in the Holy Land.  By the time Edward arrived in Tunis, Louis had died from the plague.  Edward continued his fight without the French.

On the 16th November, King Henry III died, and upon Edward’s return, he succeeded to the English throne.

1274  Edward was crowned King Edward I, King of England, at Westminster Abbey in the August.

Edward’s early part of his reign, led to the invasion of Wales; a country made up of small princedoms.  For Llewellyn ap Gruffyd, maintained that the right’s of England and Wales were separate, and he chose not to attend Edward’s coronation or pay homage to the English King.

1275  Eleanor de Montfort was intercepted whilst on route to Wales, to be married to Llewellyn ap Gruffyd, by pirates in the employ of Edward.  She was held prisoner, until Llewellyn would agree to terms of peace.

1277  Edward chose to treat Llewellyn ap Gruffyd, the last ruler of Wales, as nothing more than a rebel and disturber of the peace, and defeated him in battle.

1282  War between England and Wales erupted again, when Llewellyn joined with his brother David, in the rebellion against the English.

Edward drove Llewellyn back into the mountains of Northern Wales, where he was killed in battle, and the final end to this rebellion came with the execution of his brother, David…

Attempts to gain Welsh Independence were ended.

Edward taxed the Jewish moneylender’s to finance his war in Wales, and when they could no longer pay, they were said to be a threat to the country.

1284  The Statue of Rhuddlan, acknowledged that Wales had been brought in, and was now under the control of the English.

Edward and Queen Eleanor had a son, who was named Edward after his father.

1287  Some 300 Jews were executed at the tower of London, and other’s were said to have been murdered in their homes.

1290  Edward banished all Jews from England.

On the 28th November, Edward’s wife Eleanor died, and was interred at Westminster Abbey.  A bronze effigy surmounts her tomb, designed by William Torel.

1292  The Scottish nobles recognised the authority of Edward I, at a time when there be a dispute over succession to the Scottish throne.

Edward I nominated John Balliol as the new King of Scotland, effectively a puppet of the English.

1295  Edward summons his “Model Parliament,” which included; clergy, aristocracy, knights and town leaders.  Its aim was to raise money for wars.

John Balliol, King of Scotland reneges on his alliance with Edward I, and signs an alliance with the King of France.

1296  Edward’s army stormed Berwick on Tweed, killing all its inhabitants, deposing Balliol, and imprisoning him in the Tower of London.  The Stone of Sconce was removed to Westminster (The Stone of Sconce was used when Scottish monarchs were crowned).  He then declared himself, the King of Scotland.

1297  William Wallace took up the banner for all Scots, against the English, and defeated them in the “Battle of Stirling Bridge” in the September.  He led a war of guerrilla tactics against Edward and the English in the name of Balliol.

1298  Edward invades Scotland and defeats William Wallace at the “Battle of Falkirk” in the July.

William Wallace continued his military conquest against the English for a further seven years.

1299  Edward marries Margaret, the daughter of Philip III of France, and they have six sons and twelve daughters.

1301  Edward conferred the title of “Prince of Wales” upon his son Edward.  Since that date every first born son of the monarch is conferred with the title of Prince of Wales.

1305  William Wallace was betrayed by one of his own, taken to London where he was executed.

1306  The new government in Scotland, included Robert the Bruce who rebelled, and he was crowned King of Scotland at Scone.

1307  Edward attempted to invade Scotland, but died on route at Burgh on Sands on the 7th July aged 68.  He was buried at Westminster Abbey in a plain black marble tomb.

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Plantagenet King: Henry III

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King Henry III of England

1216  Henry III was crowned King of England at the Abbey Church at Gloucester on the 28th October at the age of nine.  He was the son of King John and Isabella, Countess of Angouleme.

William Marshall, the Earl of Pembroke and Hubert de Burgh, were appointed at the young King’s Regents.

1217  London, and many of the channel ports were in the hands of the French, as a result of England’s Barons seeking their aid to rid England of King John in 1215-16.

These French invaders were driven out, and pushed back to France, thus restoring peace in England.

1219  William Marshall died in May, leaving Hubert de Burgh as sole Regent to the young King.

1226  Henry wanted to undo the deeds of his father King John, by regaining the Duchy of Normandy from the French.

He first promised to marry Yolande of Brittany, then Joan of Ponthieu.  The French realising the threat to their lands, intervened and prevented each marriage taking place.

1227  At the age of nineteen, Henry took control of the government and his kingdom in his own name, but retained Hubert de Burgh as his chief adviser.

1230  Henry launches a failed expedition on Gascony, in an attempt to take back the Plantagenet ancestral lands in France.

1232  Peter des Roches, returns from the Holy Land.  He puts forward the case to Henry, that Hubert de Burgh, the King’s adviser and former Regent, had squandered royal money and lands.  Henry III, dismisses Hubert de Burgh as his adviser.  Hubert took sanctuary in Merton College Chapel, but Henry ordered that he be arrested and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

1236  Henry married Eleanor of Provence, with whom he had  five children.

1237  “The Treaty of York” was signed between Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland, creating an Anglo-Scottish border, which remains intact till this very day.

1238  Simon de Montfort marries Eleanor, Henry’s sister.

1240  Henry’s Great Council is called Parliament, a title which has lasted for centuries.

1245  Henry laid the foundation stone for the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey, which was consecrated in 1269.

In 1272, he became the first of the Plantagenets to be buried at the Abbey, which over the centuries has become a mausoleum for England’s monarchs.

1258  Henry’s rule had become unpopular, which led to a coalition of his barons, led by Simon de Montfort.  They temporarily seized power, and reformed the royal government, which led to the King’s signing of the “Provisions of Oxford” act.

1259  Henry and Eleanor negotiated a peace treaty with King Louis of France, where Henry gave up his claim to Plantagenet lands in northern France, but confirmed as legitimate ruler of Gascony and territories to the south.

1261  Henry, rejects the authority of the Provisions of Oxford act, and refuses to abide by the order.

1264  One of the more radical barons; Simon de Montfort seized power, which led to war with the barons.  Henry was defeated in battle and taken prisoner at the “Battle of Lewes.”

1265  Simon de Montfort takes control of the government, and summons the first elected English Parliament.  He selected a council of nine, and ruled in the king’s name, whilst the King remained his prisoner.

Prince Edward and some of England’s disillusioned barons, join force and kill Simon de Montfort at the “Battle of Evesham,” and freed Henry III.  Montfort’s head was sent to Wigmore Castle, and other parts of his body were buried beneath Evesham Abbey Altar.  Henry was weak, and showed signs of senility, so his eldest son; Edward, took charge of the government in his name.

1266 The “Dictum of Kenilworth” restored Henry’s authority and cancelled the “Provisions of Oxford” act.

1267 Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, had defeated his brother’s Owain and Dafydd in the 1250’s.  Under the terms of the Treaty of Montgomery, Henry III recognised him as ruler of Wales.

1272  King Henry III died at the Palace of Westminster on the 16th November, aged sixty-five.  He was buried at Westminster Abbey which included a gilt-brass effigy, designed and forged by William Torell.

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Plantagenet King: John

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King John of England

1199 John had previously acted as King during his brother’s absence, during the Third Crusade and fighting in France, and when King Richard I, died in 1199, he had been named his successor.

On the 6th April he ascended to the English throne, and on the 25th April he was invested as the Duke of Normandy at Rouen, and crowned King of England on the 27th May at Westminster Abbey.

With John’s rise to King of England, he received the support of nobility in England and Normandy, along with Eleanor of Aquitaine.  Little did they know that his actions during his reign would send the Plantagenet dominion on a course for collapse?

Arthur, the son of John’s brother; Count Geoffrey of Brittany, became a rival claimant to the Plantagenet lands after Richard’s death.

John’s marriage to his first wife; Isabella of Gloucester was annulled.

1200 Louis, the son of the King of France married Blanche of Castile, the daughter of the King of Spain and the niece of King John.  John’s wedding gift, were the lands of Berry and Auvergne, along with castles.

Peace reigned between England and France.

John married Isabella, the daughter of Audemar, the Count of Angouleme, and they had two sons and three daughters.

1201 Hugh the Brown, formerly engaged to Isabella had his lands seized by John along with those of his brother Ralph.

1202 John failed to attend the French court hearing, in response to the seized lands.

John’s French fiefs (land granted by a lord in return for military service) were confiscated and given to Arthur, the Count of Breton, who married Mary, the daughter of the King of France.

War with France commenced again.

1204 After two years of fighting with France, John had lost Normandy and most of his other possessions to Philip II, the King of France.

1205 England was gripped by a famine; rivers froze, and crops were destroyed by the cold.

On the 12th July, Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury died.  His death initiated a dispute which would last for years between the King and monks of Canterbury, as to who should be the rightful successor.

1206 The pope intervenes, in this ongoing dispute, between King and Monks, always on the side of the church.  John refused to accept the elected replacement, Stephen Langton as the Archbishop of Canterbury.

1207 On the 17th June Stephen Langton was consecrated as the new Archbishop of Canterbury in Rome.

John felt betrayed by the Monks of Canterbury and expelled them from England.

John’s male heir had been born; Henry, his successor to the English throne.

1208 Pope Innocent III issues a ban against England and its people.  No church services were permitted except baptisms and funerals.

1209 Pope Innocent III excommunicates John for his confiscation of church possessions.

Social tensions and riots between the townspeople and scholars, resulted in the move from Oxford to Cambridge, where a new university was born.

1212 Pope Innocent III declares that in his eyes, John is no longer the King of England.

King John believed he himself was the only ruler of his land, but he hadn’t counted on the power of the church and Rome.

John was forced to accept the authority of the Pope in England, otherwise he faced a war with France backed by the Pope… to remove him as King.

1214 Ten years of fighting with France, in an attempt to regain his lost lands, saw King John defeated by Philip Augustus at the Battle of Bouvines.

John returned to England to face the nobles, and explain to them how he had lost their lands.

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King John signs Magna Carta

1215 Rebellion between England’s barons and bishops, led to the signing of the Magna Carta at Runnymede on the River Thames.  For the first time, a document had been produced which defined limitations to royal rights, feudal obligations of its barons, liberties of the church, the granting of all freemen and their heirs… as written down in English Law.

The Pope intervened on the side of King John, making this document illegal, and so Civil War breaks out.

1216 The Magna Carta did not bring peace the barons had hoped for, and John did not abide by the terms of the document.  So the barons turned to France for assistance, and in May, Prince Louis of France, landed in England, with the support of Alexander II of Scotland, supporting from the north.

King John fled to the north, and died on the 19th October at Newark Castle from fever, and is buried before the altar of St.Wulfstan an 11th century English Bishop at Worcester Cathedral.

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Plantagenet King: Richard I

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King Richard I of England

1189 Henry II dies on the 6th July in France and is succeeded to the English throne by his son Richard, who was crowned at Westminster Abbey in the September.

King Richard I and Philip Augustus of France, head to the Holy Land on the Third Crusade, leaving the newly appointed William Longchamp as Chancellor of England, to govern his subjects in his absence.

Richard’s interests in France and being part of the Crusades in the Holy Land meant he spent less than one year of his entire reign in England.

1190 Cyprus and the town of Acre were captured.  Philip Augustus of France chose to withdraw his armies from the crusade, leaving Richard I with insufficient forces to take Jerusalem at that time.

1191 John, brother of Richard I replaced William Longchamp as governor of England, in his brother’s absence.

Richard I married Berengaria, daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre on the 12th May 1191 Limassol in Cyprus, and was crowned Queen of England.

Richard I captured Palestine and defeated Saladin at Arsuuf.

1192 Richard I negotiates an agreement, by which Saladin would guarantee Christians a safe pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

Richard I is captured in 1192 and held prisoner by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor of Germany at Trifels Castle on the German border.  The ransom for his release was set at 100,000 marks.

When John heard of his brother’s misfortune, he believed he would soon be King.

1194 The ransom for King Richard I had been raised by his people.

On the 20th March he landed at Sandwich, followed by a procession on the 23rd through the streets of London to St.Paul’s Church.

On the 12th May, he met his brother; John who sought clemency for his actions in the Kings absence… Richard forgave him, and named him as his successor.

From 1195-1199 Richard never set foot on English soil, and died in battle at Chalus in France by a crossbow arrow on the 26th March 1199.

Richard I King of England was buried at Fontevrault Abbey in France.

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Plantagenet King: Henry II

king henry ii
King Henry II of England

1133  Henry, was born to Geoffrey, the Count of Anjou and Empress Matilda, the daughter of Henry I.

1151  Henry becomes the Duke of Normandy and Anjou, upon the death of his father, Geoffrey, the Count of Anjou.

1152  Henry marries Eleanor of Aquitaine, acquiring her duchy, giving him a powerful position in France.

1153  The Treaty of Westminster, agrees that Stephen would remain King of England until his death, upon which Henry the Duke of Normandy would be his successor.

1154  Stephen dies, and Henry accedes to the English throne; King Henry II of England.

1155  Henry appoints Thomas Becket as his Chancellor of England.

Pope Adrian IV issues the papal bull Laudabiliter, which gives Henry dispensation to invade Ireland and bring the Irish church under the Control of Rome.

1157  Queen Eleanor bore Henry a son, who was christened Richard.

1158  Queen Eleanor bore Henry a son, who was christened Geoffrey.

Following the death of his brother Geoffrey, Henry crosses to France and seizes the lands of Nantes.

1161  Theobald, the Archbishop of Canterbury dies.

1162  Queen Eleanor bore Henry a daughter, who was christened with her own name; Eleanor.

King Henry II appoints Thomas Becket as the new Archbishop of Canterbury, in the hope he will aid in the introduction of new Church reforms.

Henry showed his hand, accusing the clergy of leniency of crimes amongst their own.  He informed them, that appeals to Rome as granted by Stephen would cease.

1163  Henry put forward that those of the church who had committed crimes, should be handed over to secular authorities for punishment.

1164  Henry introduced the written “Constitution of Clarendon” which placed limitations on the Church’s jurisdiction over crimes committed by their own:

Henry passed a law which stated that any person found guilty in a Church court would be punished by a Royal court.

With no approval by the pop, Thomas Becket refused to sign the Constitution on the grounds these clerics have already been degraded by the Bishop’s Court.

In the autumn, following a stormy confrontation between Henry and Becket, Thomas Becket was forced into exile at the Cistercian Abbey of Pontigny in France.

1166  The Assizes of Clarendon establishes trial by jury for the first time, for serious crimes.

Dermot McMurrough, King of Leinster in Ireland, appeals to Henry for help in opposing a confederation of other Irish Kings.  In response to the appeal, Henry sends a force led by Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, thereby beginning the English settlement of Ireland.

Queen Eleanor bore Henry a son, who was christened John.

1167  Henry, enraged at Becket’s exile in France, decrees that all English students were to return home.

Becket remained in Exile over the King’s demand to have limitless control over the church.

1168  English scholars expelled from Paris settle in Oxford, where they found a university.

The quarrel between King Henry II and Thomas Becket assisted in the creation of Oxford University.

1170  Thomas Becket and King Henry II meet in Normandy, where they reconcile their differences.

On Christmas day, Becket returned to England, and at Canterbury Cathedral publicly excommunicates his enemies.

Thomas Becket is killed in Canterbury Cathedral on the 29th December by four of Henry’s knights; Reginald FitzUrse, William de Tracy, Hugh Mauclerk and Richard le Breton, who took the king’s words literally; “Will no one rid me of this troublesome priest.”

1171-2  Henry invades Ireland and receives homage from the King of Leinster and the other Kings.  Henry is accepted as Lord of Ireland.

At Cashel Henry makes the Irish clergy submit to the authority of Rome, following the papal bull issued by the pope in 1155, giving him permission to invade Ireland.

Henry makes an agreement with Rhys ap Gruffyd, that he be the ruler of Wales in return for their loyalty.

1173  Henry’s sons; Henry, Richard and Geoffrey lead an unsuccessful rebellion against their father in Normandy.

Thomas Becket is canonized.

1176  Henry forgave his sons for turning against him…

Henry set out what each son would receive upon his death.  Henry would rule England, Normandy and Anjou.  Richard would rule Aquitaine, Geoffrey would rule Brittany and John would rule Ireland.

Henry creates a framework of justice, creating judges and dividing England into six counties.

1179  Henry changes the law concerning the right of property.  A defendant had the right to opt for trial by jury or trial by combat.

1183  Henry’s young son; Henry dies on the 11th June.

1186  On the 19th August Henry’s son Geoffrey dies.

1189  King Henry II dies at Chinon Castle, in Anjou and is buried at Fontevraud in France.

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