The burden he bore Gave no time for refute He’d been given a job One could not dispute And poor Lady Jane In her ashen condition Seemed far beyond Any hope of volition Not a single wish Could change her fate The course was set Her breath too late And the Lady in wait Sorrowfully […]
Ireland’s last famine had been in 1845-1852 which caused mass hunger and deaths, yet twenty-seven years later in 1879; they had not fully recovered, and would be struck down once again.
The country’s poor farmers, lived as tenant farmers, and were subject to landowners whether they had a roof over their head. Any improvements to the land or their homes became the property of the landlord upon termination of lease or eviction.
Farm produce and prices had seen a growing economy between 1852 through to the 1870’s, and tenants had seen their rents increase. With high crop yields, and good sales, everybody was happy. Suddenly without warning, the weather conditions changed in 1874, covering most of Europe, which saw poor harvests in the following years.
What they had dreaded most, was just around the corner, waiting to strike. Blight, hit the potato crops of Ireland once again, and the people knew what was coming next; starvation and famine, as many had lived through the previous famine, and lived to tell the tale.
Help came from abroad; Wheat from USA and Ukraine, Meat from Argentina and Australia, to keep the prices down for producers, and help a country weather a bad storm.
Back in the 1850’s, a new form of tenancy agreement had been laid down. The old lease was referred to as “lease of three lives” which is exactly what it meant within any family unit. This was replaced by an annual or eleven month lease, thus long-term security had gone.
Twenty-seven years had passed, and the farmer’s and labourer’s had become organised. Now they were represented by the “National Alliance” better known as the “Land League” (Much like our unions of today), led by Charles Stewart Parnell. The land league was financed by donations from America, but their actions against landowners, was nothing short of hostile. They physically blocked evictions in mass and burnt leases in public places, showing their contempt.
One of the worst area’s was Connacht, for it suffered from poor quality of land, more rain than most other parts of Ireland, which equalled poor farmers, and reduced crops and levels of food.
When the first signs of bad crops appeared in the Connacht area in 1879, they knew what was coming… hunger and famine. They didn’t need to be told, you could see the frightened look upon their faces, and the fear in their eyes.
Parnell’s Land War brought British political reforms for Irelands small farmers and tenants to a head. William Gladstone, the then British Prime Minister had to act, before it got seriously out of control. The former Landlord and Tenant (Ireland) Act of 1870, was replaced in 1881, with the “Occupation and Ownership of Land in Ireland Act,” which was designed to create official rent reductions, and would recognise the interest of tenants, on leased land.
Parnell, further enhanced his demands upon the British Government, by promising to stop disruptions across the land, if all unpaid rents were cancelled. They had no choice, but to agree.
The “Wyndham Act” of 1903, was brought in to help Irish Tenant Farmers, and would see an end to their unstable lifestyle. Over a period of time, they would see their life of poverty fade in the distance behind them. Tenants could purchase land from their landlords, at a fair price set by the government, and pay the money to the government, spread over many years, without causing any hardship.
Many of the world’s poorest countries have relied on a single crop for survival in much the same way as Ireland did during its famine years. This has proved to be a disadvantage, as weather and diseased crops can wreak havoc across countries, and thousands of people face hunger, and the thought of famine.
The people, the country had never properly recovered from the 18th century famine of 1740-1741, where up to a million people are believed to have lost their lives.
Ireland became governed by the English in 1801, and many considered the country was on the verge of starvation, with an ever increasing population. A high number of the workforce was unemployed, and living standards were low.
Irish Catholics are believed to make up eighty per cent of the population during the 19th century, and most lived in conditions bordering on the verge of poverty.
The impoverished tenants were paid low wages to work the land. Whilst other’s leased the land from the landowners. Much land was owned by the Protestants. Large estates tended to be owned by Anglo-Irish families, who lived in England, and were referred to as “Absentee Landlords.”
In 1843 a Royal Commission was set up under the Earl of Devon, with regards to the occupation of Irish lands. Those attended were landlords, for not a single tenant was present.
It was said, that the Irish labourer’s family lived on potato and water, their cabins offered little protection against the elements, and a bed or blanket would be classed as a luxury.
The agent or the middleman, leased large areas of land, from the landowner’s, and fixed rents accordingly. Holdings of land were often broken down into smaller lots, to create larger income, a system known as conacre.
Tenants property improvements, became the property of landlords, when lease expired or ended, so hardly any improvements were undertaken. Their security was none, they could be turned out, whenever an agent or landlord wished … they lived in fear of that day coming.
The 1841 census showed Ireland’s population sat a little over eight million, and some six million depended on agricultural work, but did not receive a liveable wage.
They would work for a landlord, and receive a patch of land to feed their family. It was so small; they had no choice but to grow potatoes. This forced many people into a peasantry lifestyle. That piece of land was the difference between life and death.
A report by the English Government in 1845, just before the famine struck Ireland, concluded that one third of all small holdings were insufficient in size, to support families, once rent had been paid.
By the late 17th century, the potato supplemented the principal food diet of milk, butter, bread, and grain products. By the early part of the 18th century, it became the main food for the poor.
The potato crop failures in Ireland were widespread across the land in 1841 and 1844, and the cause was confirmed as that of “Blight.” It was put forward, than the infection more than likely originated from America, for Blight had killed off large crops in 1843 and 1844.
By the early autumn of 1845, most of Europe including Ireland had seen their potato crop struck down by this deadly disease, and by December 1846, three quarters of their potato crops had been destroyed, and some three million people faced hunger.
Ireland asked England for help, stating if we belong to the realm, what the exchequer can do for us. Dublin asked for ports to be open for imports, and money for public works. Lord Heytesbury, considered they were premature in their request, but it would be investigated.
John Mitchell a young political writer, raised the question of the Potato Disease, and if something was not done soon, millions of people would starve, and famine would spread across the land. In desperation to get his words across, he produced leaflets which included the phrase: “The Almighty, indeed, sent the potato blight, but the English created the famine.”
They were indeed dangerous words, and he was charged with Sedition, and sentenced to 14 years and transported to Bermuda, under the charge of the Treason Felony Act.
The Prime Minister at the time was Robert Peel, and he had been shocked by the findings on the report of conditions in Ireland. This led him to purchase £100,000 worth of maize and cornmeal from America on the quiet, for his own party would not agree with his actions. The first shipment arrived in February 1846.
Later that year Robert Peel wanted to change the rules of the Corn Laws, which was keeping the price of bread high, thus stopping cheap grain being imported. Ireland’s people needed help, and his actions placed him on the opposite side of the fence to his own party … but he was doing, what he believed in.
On the 25th June 1846, he lost a vote in the House of Commons, and on the 29th June, as the famine worsened and his hands were tied, he was forced out of office.
Lord John Russell, replaced Robert Peel, and introduced a range of public works projects, so hundreds of thousands of Irish dug holes, and broke up roads, to earn money to feed their families in the short term. Then administrators under his command halted the public works program, which meant no work, no money to buy food. So they introduced workhouses and soup kitchens through the Poor Law.
The costs involved in the administration of the Poor Law fell upon the landlords, who in turn evicted their tenants to reduce their liability.
The Times newspaper, stated that England had created mass poverty, allowing landlords to suck the very life-blood from the Irish people.
There was a clause within the Poor Law, making it illegal for those holding a quarter of an acre or more of land, from receiving relief…
So it was, if you leased land, from the landowner, and became an agent. Then leased the said land to tenant farmers, you had no choice, but to eject your tenants, return the land to the owner, before you can apply for relief.
Records showed that during the worst years of the famine, Ireland still continued to export food, to England. Their potato crop had failed, even so they exported enough grain crops to sustain the population. It was referred to as a “money crop” not a “food crop.” Therefore it was shipped abroad, while their people starved; men, women and children.
The relations between England and Ireland provoked much anger and hostility, as Ireland starved, and the English survived on Irish produce.
Landlords found themselves responsible for paying rates, where tenant’s rents equalled less than £4.00 per year in 1846/47. This led to mass evictions, thousands evicted, homes levelled and burnt before their very eyes. It was not surprising that some tenants rebelled, and some landlords died.
During the height of the famine, the Irish fled their homeland for pastures new. It is known that some 100,000 (1847), 90,000 (1849) and 104,000 (1850) fled but this was just a small number known to have escaped to; England, Scotland, America, Canada and Australia. More often the younger family members were the ones who would seek out a new life.
The famine was responsible for depopulation of an overcrowded country … and as many as 1,500,000 are known to have died.
In 1852, and the famine was over, as Ireland and its people started getting back on its feet. Then in 1854, nearly two million left their homeland, to avoid starvation and poverty, in the future.
If one takes a look at the history of Ireland, and to this day many questions remain unanswered as to who is directly responsible for the famine that swept through their land.
The exportation of food during the famine to England, as the Irish died from starvation, is a part of history that will never be forgotten!
A small round object sent around the world … changed the course of human history…
When we celebrate the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus on Columbus Day, we should also be celebrating Columbus’s discovery of the potato. More accurately, Columbus’s introduction of the potato from the New World to the Old World. This introduction of New World foods to Europe and the east is known as the “Columbian Exchange”.
The potato, and other native American plants “…transformed cultures, reshuffled politics and spawned new economic systems that then, in a globalizing feedback loop, took root back in the New World as well.” This quote is from an article in the Washington Post on October 8, 2018, titled “Christopher Columbus and the Potato that Changed the World.” The article is by Steve Hendrix.
An example of the potato’s earth-shattering impact is that it helped eliminate famines and fueled a population boom in parts of northern Europe. This made urbanization possible which, in turn, fueled the Industrial…
View original post 720 more words
Ireland was struck down by famine in 1740-1741, and this period in their history was referred to as the “Year of the Slaughter.”
It started with a Great Frost in December 1739 and went on to September 1741. Temperatures across Ireland and Europe plummeted to -12 °C indoors, and as high as -32°C outdoors.
Little snow fell, as the winds increased, and temperatures dropped even further. Ireland and most of Europe had been affected, as rivers, lakes and streams froze, and the fish died in the first few weeks of this natural disaster.
Hypothermia was the greatest fear; people burned what they could to stay alive. Country dwellers fared better, as many properties were of wooden construction, and they burned trees to keep warm.
In normal weather conditions, Ireland received shipments of coal from Wales and Scotland, but the weather temporarily suspended deliveries. By late January 1740, when shipments had resumed, prices had soared, above most people’s pockets.
Much machinery in those days was powered by water, and the sub-zero temperatures brought them to a halt. Like the food processing plants, cloth for the weavers, and paper for the printers. Then Ireland was plunged into darkness, when the oil froze, and the street lights were snuffed out.
Ireland had two main food sources; potato and oatmeal. Potatoes were grown in gardens and on farms, but most had been attacked by the frost and destroyed.
In the spring of 1740, the rains did not come, the frost dissipated, but the fierce cold winds remained. If the cold had not killed off the livestock; sheep and cattle etc, the drought was the final straw.
In the summer of 1740, the people of Ireland faced a famine of the likes they had never experienced … The frost had killed the potato harvest. The drought killed off the grain harvest, cattle and sheep.
People were starving, and food was becoming scarce. There started a mass exit out of Northern Ireland, heading to the south of the country, where beggars lined the streets.
With food prices soaring, hungry people vented their anger on grain dealers, bakers and food warehouses.
It was expected, and they should not have been surprised, when hungry hoards, boarded a vessel at Drogheda, preparing to deliver oatmeal to Scotland. The rioters removed the rudder and sails, preventing the delivery.
In the summer of 1740, rioters clashed in many cities and towns, in a bid for food. Dublin was attacked, as they sought out bakers holding on to bread. This brought out the troops to restore order, and some rioters were killed in the scuffles.
An international war broke out; and Spanish privateers captured food ships destined for Ireland.
Autumn 1740, and Ireland had a small harvest, some cattle had survived, but milk and butter was limited. Prices in the shops dropped a little, it was no more than a goodwill gesture … for it could not last.
October 1740, what Ireland dreaded most; snow blizzards swept along the East Coast. In December, the rain arrived causing widespread flooding. Within twenty-four hours, temperatures had fallen, and snow fell yet again, as the rivers and lakes froze. This time the cold spell only lasted for ten days, for it was followed by warm temperatures.
Ireland’s people needed food, and riots ran wild through the country. In December 1740, the signs were there for all to see, famine was upon the people of this land. They needed help.
For it was on the 15th December 1740, Samuel Cooke, the then Lord Mayor of Dublin, met with Archbishop Boulter, Henry Boyle Speaker of the Commons, and Lord Jocelyn; Lord Chancellor of Ireland, to look for ways to reduce the price of corn.
Boulter, seeing the need of the people, started a feeding program for the poor of Dublin. The High Sheriff of each county was ordered to take stock of grain and cereal reserves held by farmers and merchants. It was staggering, that some 85,000 barrels were being held, whilst the people of this land were dying from hunger.
The late William Conolly’s widow and a major landowner distributed food in the “Black Spring” of 1741. In Drogheda, Henry Singleton Chief Justice of the Irish Common Pleas donated a large amount of his personal money towards famine relief.
In the June of 1741, five ships reached Galway, laden down with grain from America. In July of the same year, grain prices dropped, in response to stored grain being released onto the market.
The autumn harvest of 1741 was one of plenty, for the food crisis was at an end, but it would take Ireland many years to recover from that deadly period. Hundreds of thousands died during that time…
If the hoarded grain stocks had been used to feed the country’s people, just think, how many lives might have been saved!
The burden he bore
Gave no time for refute
He’d been given a job
One could not dispute
And poor Lady Jane
In her ashen condition
Seemed far beyond
Any hope of volition
Not a single wish
Could change her fate
The course was set
Her breath too late
And the Lady in wait
Pearls in hand
No peace of mind
The room stood still
As time captured the end
Poor Lady Jane
Not a soul would defend
© 2018 Michelle Cook
Photo credit: https://www.wikiart.org/en/paul-delaroche/the-execution-of-lady-jane-grey-1833
Anne Boleyn is said to be one of the most memorable of ghosts to haunt the Tower of London in the area of the White Tower and the chapel of St.Peter and Vincula, where her headless body was interred in an arrow case under the floor.
On the 1st June 1536 Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen of England, and on the 7th September she gave birth to a daughter; Princess Elizabeth, much to the disgust of Henry who wanted a male heir.
On the 2nd May the Queen was arrested and charged with committing adultery with Sir Francis Weston and Wiiliam Breton, and plotting against the life of the King.
On the 19th May Anne Boleyn was led out to Tower Hill and beheaded, and her remains were buried in the Chapel of St.Peter ad Vincula adjoining Tower Green.
It is said that in 1864 a sentry challenged a headless figure thought to be that of Anne Boleyn, and his bayonet passed right through her.
In another account the Captain of the Guard witnessed a light from the locked Chapel Royal in the White Tower. He peered down into the chapel and witnessed a procession of people all dressed in old clothing with one Anne Boleyn leading the procession.